MRI showing entry of dendritic cells (yellow) in lymph node
To study the distribution of the DC vaccine in vivo, we studied SPIO (super paramagnetic oxide) particle labeled DC after intranodal injection in patients with metastatic melanoma that were scheduled for lymph node resection because of metastasis. The DC were labeled with SPIO particles ex vivo and injected in a lymph node 24 to 72 hours prior to lymph node resection. This allowed us to get detailed insight in the migration patterns of DC within a lymph node in vivo. Distribution to more than one lymph node had already taken place within the first 30 minutes after injection. In the picture above we see a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recording from a lymph node resected after 48 hours. The black staining within the dotted yellow area shows DC identified because of their SPIO content. On the left a part of the afferent lymph vessel is seen and the DC distribute from there.
For further reading:
de Vries IJ, Lesterhuis WJ, Barentsz JO, Verdijk P, van Krieken JH, Boerman OC, Oyen WJ, Bonenkamp JJ, Boezeman JB, Adema GJ, Bulte JW, Scheenen TW, Punt CJ, Heerschap A, Figdor CG. Magnetic resonance tracking of dendritic cells in melanoma patients for monitoring of cellular therapy. Nat Biotechnol, 2005. 23(11): 1407-13.
Verdijk P, Aarntzen EH, Lesterhuis WJ, Boullart AC, Kok E, van Rossum MM, Strijk S, Eijckeler F, Bonenkamp JJ, Jacobs JF, Blokx W, Vankrieken JH, Joosten I, Boerman OC, Oyen WJ, Adema G, Punt CJ, Figdor CG, de Vries IJ. Limited Amounts of Dendritic Cells Migrate into the T-Cell Area of Lymph Nodes but Have High Immune Activating Potential in Melanoma Patients. Clin Cancer Res, 2009. 15(7): 2531-40.
De Vries IJ, Krooshoop DJ, Scharenborg NM, Lesterhuis WJ, Diepstra JH, Van Muijen GN, Strijk SP, Ruers TJ, Boerman OC, Oyen WJ, Adema GJ, Punt CJ, Figdor CG. Effective migration of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells to lymph nodes in melanoma patients is determined by their maturation state. Cancer Res, 2003. 63(1): 12-7.